English Education Essays
Learning is the fundamental activity of people and some animals. It ensures the life long improvement of human brain, behavior, activity, and social life. В Learning theory is the description of the learning process of people and some animals. I am going to explain theories which are behaviorism, cognitivism and constructivism. l want to especially explain constructivism and how it affectsВ students.
According to Wakefield В«Learning can be described as a relatively permanent change in the behavior of an individual based on his /her experience or discoveries.»
Also learning theory provides people the understanding of complex learning steps. Therefore learning is a process whichВ continue during life. In order to explain the learning, researchers propose some theories. These theories are named as learning theory. The learning theory is devised by the researchers of two basic objectives mechanism of people and some animals. В The first objective is the framework of the learning concepts to provide a good understanding of learning process and the other is to enable the solutions of learning problems.
There are basically three main class or conceptual frameworks for the learning theories which are; В behaviorism, cognitivism, and constructivism. В Behaviorism researches on the visible and observable side of the learning process that includes the monitoring of the learning process of humans. Some scientists who are interested in behaviorism are: Thorndike, Watson and Skinner.
Skinner thought the environment as a whole stimulus. BF Skinner states that В«While we are awake, we act upon the environment constantly, and many of the consequences of our actions are reinforcingВ». Cognitivism theory considers the information as given and clear. It tries to explain the physical properties of human brain in learning process. Jean Piaget is one of the best psychologist in this theory.
ConstructivismВ considers the knowledge and its formation in the human mind. This theory basically proposes that the knowledge is formed by interacting with the environment around an individual. В Also constructivism analyzes the learning process that the learning organism brings the new ideas, abstract object together so as to built its learning constructs. Lev Vygotsky and Bruner are some of the researchers who worked on this theory.
For an effective teaching l think teachers should prefer to use the combined learning theories simultaneously in their teaching practice in the classroom. In teaching, some behaviors the rewarding mechanismВ would be preferred. For example; teaching a preferred behavior under someВ conditions, teacher should prefer behaviorism theory in practice. In addition the behaviorism teacher should also use cognitivism during their teaching, because the mental functions such as memory, word processing and etc. would be utilized while adapting students to a subject or research field. However, the most important learning theory is the constructivism that actively teach students the novel subjects and research areas because they can learn while they are livingВ in their normal environment. This is why some students go to abroad to learn a foreign language and why some courses are conducted in laboratories. Therefore at most teacher should prefer to use constructivism during their teaching.
In conclusion; learning is very complex system. In order to understand this system a lot of scientists do a lot of researches. If teacher useВ learning theories very well, they can reach good education type. Especially if constructivism theory is used very effectively, students are educated more informed, more skilled and more effectively.
REFERENCES AND QUATATД°ONS; BOOKS
Wakefield, J. F. 1996. В Educational Psychology: Learning to be a Problem-Solver. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. page 5
Skinner, B. F. 1966. Science and Human Behaviour. New York: MacMillan. page 5